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3 The physics of the use of wind energy 38 a) b) Fig. 2-22 a) Cup anemometer, b) simplified model The aerodynamic efficiency of this “wind turbine” is roughly calculated with a similar simplified model (for the drag coefficients of the hemispheres see Fig. 2-22). 11) Again, the expression in the braces corresponds to the power coefficient cP (O). 16, Fig. 2-23) is even lower than the one of the Persian windmill (Fig. 2-21). Therefore, this type of “wind turbine” is not used for extracting power from the wind.

2-10 Western mills as wind pumping systems [10] Fig. 2-11 Overview of historical horizontal axis windmill types [11] 2 Historical development of windmills 25 The last type of historical windmills is the American farm windmill (‘Western mill’), which was developed in the mid-19th century. The Western mill was mainly used for providing drinking water for both people and cattle in North America. Moreover, it assured the water supply for the steam locomotives of the new railways expanding into the West.

Pitch AC–DC–AC inverter wind gearbox variable speed (with or without) SG = ~ ~ = grid synchronus generator Fig. 1-16 Pitch-controlled variable speed wind turbine with synchronous generator and ac-dc-ac power conversion 1 Introduction to Wind Energy 13 The classic Danish design is very simple and robust. Variable speed machines are more flexible in their adaptation to the grid, but they require a more sophisticated control technology. Both designs are used even in huge megawatt machines with rotor diameters of 70 meters and more.

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